C语言函数集(十二)

main()主函数

    每一C 程序都必须有一main()函数, 可以根据自己的爱好把它放在程序的某个地方。有些程序员把它放在最前面, 而另一些程序员把它放在最后面, 无论放在哪个地方, 以下几点说明都是适合的。
    1. main() 参数
    在Turbo C2.0启动过程中, 传递main()函数三个参数: argc, argvenv* argc:  整数, 为传给main()的命令行参数个数。
     * argv:  字符串数组。
              在DOS 3.X 版本中, argv[0] 为程序运行的全路径名; DOS 3.0              以下的版本, argv[0]为空串("") argv[1] 为在DOS命令行中执行程序名后的第一个字符串;
              argv[2] 为执行程序名后的第二个字符串;
              ...
              argv[argc]NULL*env:  安符串数组。env[] 的每一个元素都包含ENVVAR=value形式的字符串。其中ENVVAR为环境变量如PATH87value ENVVAR的对应值如C:\DOS, C:\TURBOC(对于PATH) YES(对于87)Turbo C2.0启动时总是把这三个参数传递给main()函数, 可以在用户程序中说明(或不说明)它们, 如果说明了部分(或全部)参数, 它们就成为main()子程序的局部变量。
    请注意: 一旦想说明这些参数, 则必须按argc, argv, env 的顺序, 如以下的例子:
     main()
     main(int argc)
     main(int argc, char *argv[])
     main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])
    其中第二种情况是合法的, 但不常见, 因为在程序中很少有只用argc, 而不用argv[]的情况。
    以下提供一样例程序EXAMPLE.EXE,  演示如何在main()函数中使用三个参数:
     /*program name EXAMPLE.EXE*/
     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdlib.h>
     main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])
     {
          int i;
          printf("These are the %d  command- line  arguments passed  to
                  main:\n\n", argc);
          for(i=0; i<=argc; i++)
            printf("argv[%d]:%s\n", i, argv[i]);
          printf("\nThe environment string(s)on this system are:\n\n");
          for(i=0; env[i]!=NULL; i++)
               printf(" env[%d]:%s\n", i, env[i]);
     }
    如果在DOS 提示符下, 按以下方式运行EXAMPLE.EXE:
    C:\example first_argument "argument with blanks"  3  4  "last  butone" stop!
    注意: 可以用双引号括起内含空格的参数, 如本例中的:   "  argumentwith blanks""Last but one")。
    结果是这样的:
     The value of argc is 7
     These are the 7 command-linearguments passed to main:
     argv[0]:C:\TURBO\EXAMPLE.EXE
     argv[1]:first_argument
     argv[2]:argument with blanks
     argv[3]:3
     argv[4]:4
     argv[5]:last but one
     argv[6]:stop!
     argv[7]:(NULL)
     The environment string(s) on this system are:
     env[0]: COMSPEC=C:\COMMAND.COM
     env[1]: PROMPT=$P$G            /*视具体设置而定*/
     env[2]: PATH=C:\DOS;C:\TC      /*视具体设置而定*/

     应该提醒的是: 传送main() 函数的命令行参数的最大长度为128 个字符 (包括参数间的空格),  这是由DOS 限制的。


函数名: matherr
功  能: 用户可修改的数学错误处理程序
用  法: int matherr(struct exception *e);
程序例:

/* This is a user-defined matherr function that prevents
   any error messages from being printed. */

#include<math.h>

int matherr(struct exception *a)
{
   return 1;
}




函数名: memccpy
功  能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用  法: void *memccpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned char ch,   unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *src = "This is the source string";
   char dest[50];
   char *ptr;

   ptr = memccpy(dest, src, 'c', strlen(src));

   if (ptr)
   {
      *ptr = '\0';
      printf("The character was found:  %s\n", dest);
   }
   else
      printf("The character wasn't found\n");
   return 0;
}



函数名: malloc
功  能: 内存分配函数
用  法: void *malloc(unsigned size);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#include <process.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *str;

   /* allocate memory for string */
   /* This will generate an error when compiling */
   /* with C++, use the new operator instead. */
   if ((str = malloc(10)) == NULL)
   {
      printf("Not enough memory to allocate buffer\n");
      exit(1);  /* terminate program if out of memory */
   }

   /* copy "Hello" into string */
   strcpy(str, "Hello");

   /* display string */
   printf("String is %s\n", str);

   /* free memory */
   free(str);

   return 0;
}




函数名: memchr
功  能: 在数组的前n个字节中搜索字符
用  法: void *memchr(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char str[17];
   char *ptr;

   strcpy(str, "This is a string");
   ptr = memchr(str, 'r', strlen(str));
   if (ptr)
      printf("The character 'r' is at position: %d\n", ptr - str);
   else
      printf("The character was not found\n");
   return 0;
}


函数名: memcpy
功  能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用  法: void *memcpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
int main(void)
{
   char src[] = "******************************";
   char dest[] = "abcdefghijlkmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456709";
   char *ptr;
   printf("destination before memcpy: %s\n", dest);
   ptr = memcpy(dest, src, strlen(src));
   if (ptr)
      printf("destination after memcpy:  %s\n", dest);
   else
      printf("memcpy failed\n");
   return 0;
}



函数名: memicmp
功  能: 比较两个串s1s2的前n个字节, 忽略大小写
用  法: int memicmp(void *s1, void *s2, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "ABCDE123";
   char *buf2 = "abcde456";
   int stat;
   stat = memicmp(buf1, buf2, 5);
   printf("The strings to position 5 are ");
   if (stat)
      printf("not ");
   printf("the same\n");
   return 0;
}



函数名: memmove
功  能: 移动一块字节
用  法: void *memmove(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
  char *dest = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789";
  char *src = "******************************";
  printf("destination prior to memmove: %s\n", dest);
  memmove(dest, src, 26);
  printf("destination after memmove:    %s\n", dest);
  return 0;
}




函数名: memset
功  能: 设置s中的所有字节为ch, s数组的大小由n给定
用  法: void *memset(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <mem.h>

int main(void)
{
   char buffer[] = "Hello world\n";

   printf("Buffer before memset: %s\n", buffer);
   memset(buffer, '*', strlen(buffer) - 1);
   printf("Buffer after memset:  %s\n", buffer);
   return 0;
}



函数名: mkdir
功  能: 建立一个目录
用  法: int mkdir(char *pathname);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <dir.h>

int main(void)
{
  int status;

   clrscr();
   status = mkdir("asdfjklm");
   (!status) ? (printf("Directory created\n")) :
               (printf("Unable to create directory\n"));

   getch();
   system("dir");
   getch();

   status = rmdir("asdfjklm");
   (!status) ? (printf("Directory deleted\n")) :
  (perror("Unable to delete directory"));

   return 0;
}




函数名: mktemp
功  能: 建立唯一的文件名
用  法: char *mktemp(char *template);
程序例:

#include <dir.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* fname defines the template for the
     temporary file.  */

   char *fname = "TXXXXXX", *ptr;

   ptr = mktemp(fname);
   printf("%s\n",ptr);
   return 0;
}



函数名: MK_FP
功  能: 设置一个远指针
用  法: void far *MK_FP(unsigned seg, unsigned off);
程序例:

#include <dos.h>
#include <graphics.h>

int main(void)
{
   int gd, gm, i;
   unsigned int far *screen;

   detectgraph(&gd, &gm);
   if (gd == HERCMONO)
       screen = MK_FP(0xB000, 0);
   else
       screen = MK_FP(0xB800, 0);
   for (i=0; i<26; i++)
      screen[i] = 0x0700 + ('a' + i);
   return 0;
}



函数名: modf
功  能: 把数分为指数和尾数
用  法: double modf(double value, double *iptr);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double fraction, integer;
   double number = 100000.567;

   fraction = modf(number, &integer);
   printf("The whole and fractional parts of %lf are %lf and %lf\n",
          number, integer, fraction);
   return 0;
}



函数名: movedata
功  能: 拷贝字节
用  法: void movedata(int segsrc, int offsrc, int segdest,
  int offdest, unsigned numbytes);
程序例:

#include <mem.h>

#define MONO_BASE 0xB000

/* saves the contents of the monochrome screen in buffer */
void save_mono_screen(char near *buffer)
{
   movedata(MONO_BASE, 0, _DS, (unsigned)buffer, 80*25*2);
}

int main(void)
{
   char buf[80*25*2];
   save_mono_screen(buf);
}



函数名: moverel
功  能: 将当前位置(CP)移动一相对距离
用  法: void far moverel(int dx, int dy);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   char msg[80];

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s\n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   /* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
   moveto(20, 30);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

   /* move to a point a relative distance */
   /* away from the current value of C.P. */
   moverel(100, 100);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at C.P. */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtext(msg);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}



函数名: movetext
功  能: 将屏幕文本从一个矩形区域拷贝到另一个矩形区域
用  法: int movetext(int left, int top, int right, int bottom,
  int newleft, int newtop);
程序例:
#include <conio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *str = "This is a test string";

   clrscr();
   cputs(str);
   getch();

   movetext(1, 1, strlen(str), 2, 10, 10);
   getch();

   return 0;
}



函数名: moveto
功  能: CP移到(x, y)
用  法: void far moveto(int x, int y);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   char msg[80];

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s\n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   /* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
   moveto(20, 30);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

   /* move to (100, 100) */
   moveto(100, 100);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at C.P. */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtext(msg);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}



函数名: movemem
功  能: 移动一块字节
用  法: void movemem(void *source, void *destin, unsigned len);
程序例:

#include <mem.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *source = "Borland International";
   char *destination;
   int length;

   length = strlen(source);
   destination = malloc(length + 1);
   movmem(source,destination,length);
   printf("%s\n",destination);

   return 0;
}



函数名: normvideo
功  能: 选择正常亮度字符
用  法: void normvideo(void);
程序例:

#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   normvideo();
   cprintf("NORMAL Intensity Text\r\n");
   return 0;
}



函数名: nosound
功  能: 关闭PC扬声器
用  法: void nosound(void);
程序例:

/* Emits a 7-Hz tone for 10 seconds.

     True story: 7 Hz is the resonant frequency of a chicken's skull cavity.
     This was determined empirically in Australia, where a new factory
     generating 7-Hz tones was located too close to a chicken ranch:
     When the factory started up, all the chickens died.

     Your PC may not be able to emit a 7-Hz tone.
*/

int main(void)
{
   sound(7);
   delay(10000);
   nosound();
}

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